Fire and Explosion Risk Analysis for Nanomaterials
Micron-sized powders are often used in chemical plants. If the minimum ignition energy (MIE) of a powder is less than 30 mJ, measures to control static electricity-related disasters need to be implemented. Nanometals are susceptible to explosion because their MIEs are very low, for example, the MIEs of nano-Ti, Fe, and Al are all less than 1 mJ. These kinds of metal nanomaterials are very dangerous for operation. This chapter includes examples of nanomaterial disasters, explosion characteristics of nanopowders, risks of nanometals conveyed by air, and process safety control. For example, a nano-iron fire in an oxygen cylinder when the worker opened the regulator valves. The minimum ignition energy, minimum explosive concentration, maximum explosion pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise for nano-iron will be introduced. Explosion disasters are combined with a review of journal papers to make readers recognize the fire and explosion risks of nanomaterials.