Oxidative Coupling of Methane (OCM) processes have been investigated as an alternative promising approach for ethylene production for the last three decades. Having considered the performance of the state-of-the-art OCM catalysts and the OCM reaction mechanism, improving the performance of the OCM membrane reactor could be considered as an important contribution to address such a complicated reactor engineering task. In this context, a systematic methodology implementing inorganic membranes, properly modified via silica-based materials, and the thereby achieved outstanding OCM membrane reactor performances are reported here. Moreover, the most important aspects of the performance analysis of OCM membrane reactors, especially in the context of the thermal-engineering characteristics of these systems, are discussed. Such analysis, for the most part, can be applied similarly to analyze other highly exothermic reaction systems in membrane reactors. Interactions between the membrane and the benchmark Mn–Na2WO4/SiO2 catalyst are also discussed. Furthermore, along with reviewing the general aspects of the model-based analysis of OCM membrane reactors, the potential of integrated OCM membrane reactors, such as dual-membrane reactors, is also highlighted. The special characteristics of modeling such non-isothermal reaction systems with significant mass and heat integration in both radial and axial dimensions are also reviewed.