The manifestation of tuberculosis (TB) is highly complex and there is still a pressing need to improve diagnosis, prevention, and treatment strategies to control the worldwide spread of disease. Recently, the WHO proposed the eradication of TB by 2050; such a goal requires active research directing ways to prevent infection or transmission through vaccination, diagnosis asymptomatic carriers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), and to advance antimicrobial drug treatment responses. The progress of nano delivery systems will provide a prospect to increase the efficacy of existing drugs, which might have an important role in TB control and eradication. Nanogels encompass complex and swollen nano-sized networks formed by hydrophilic or amphiphilic polymer chains, having non-ionic or ionic nature. This chapter details the basics of nanogels composition, synthesis methods and their contribution in TB treatment and diagnosis.