Magnetic Nanoparticles in Catalysis
Magnetic nanometer-size catalysts were found to be suitable for a number of bond formations, such as C–C, C–O and C–S cross coupling, Mannich type, carbonylation, alkylation, reduction and asymmetric synthesis. The magnetic nanoparticles can play important roles in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Recycling experiments have demonstrated that magnetic nanosize catalysts can be readily recovered by external magnets and reused several times without virtually any loss in activity. This chapter is divided into three main parts: The introduction discusses the advantages and important features of magnetic nanocatalysts. The second part summarizes a snapshot of recent impressive advances in magnetic nanoparticles in organic synthesis and catalysis. The third section discusses further development of magnetic nanoparticles in catalysis. It will focus on the following aspects: (1) How are new bonds formed? (2) How are leaching processes from metal catalysts either minimized or avoided? (3) What are the best strategies for preparing bimetallic catalysts?