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Chapter 16

Internal Pressure and Internal Energy of Saturated and Compressed Phases

Following a critical review of the field, a comprehensive analysis is provided of the internal pressure of fluids and fluid mixtures and its determination in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Further, the physical meaning is discussed of the internal pressure along with its microscopic interpretation by means of calorimetric experiments. A new relation is explored between the internal pressure and the isochoric heat capacity jump along the coexistence curve near the critical point. Various methods (direct and indirect) of internal pressure determination are discussed. Relationships are studied between the internal pressure and key thermodynamic properties, namely expansion coefficient, isothermal compressibility, speed of sound, enthalpy increments, and viscosity. Loci of isothermal, isobaric, and isochoric internal pressure maxima and minima were examined in addition to the locus of zero internal pressure. Details are discussed of a new method of direct internal pressure determination by a calorimetric experiment that involves simultaneous measurement of the thermal pressure coefficient (∂P/∂T)V, i.e. internal pressure Pint=(∂U/∂V)T and heat capacity cV=(∂U/∂T)V. The dependence of internal pressure on external pressure, temperature and density for pure fluids, and on concentration for binary mixtures is considered on the basis of reference (NIST REFPROP) and crossover EOS. The asymptotic scaling behavior of the internal pressure near the critical point was studied using a scaling type EOS.

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12 Sep 2017
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