Horticultural crops are extremely diverse and from a wide range of plant families. They may be grown as annuals, biennials or perennials, either outdoors or under protection in glasshouses or polytunnels. Altogether horticultural crops are likely to be restricted to a relatively small footprint in comparison with arable crops and with grassland supporting livestock. However, per area of crop grown, the use of fertilisers and pesticides may be relatively high in some cases. Most horticultural crops are grown to be consumed or used fresh, rather than as processed products, and the appearance and quality of the produce is a key determinant of marketable yield. The requirement for produce that is completely free from blemishes may disproportionately affect the amounts of pesticide applied. This chapter summarises approaches used in the production of horticultural crops, focusing on the use of agricultural chemicals and potential approaches to reducing their environmental impact. The chapter includes two case studies which consider carrot production in the UK and Integrated Pest and Disease Management in apple orchards, respectively.