In 2013, aquaculture produced 97.2 million tonnes (live weight) of fish, shellfish, aquatic plants and other aquatic animals. Valued at $157 billion (138 billion euros), a total of 575 aquatic species and species groups were cultivated in freshwater, seawater and brackish water. Although aquaculture production is dominated by the fish and shellfish cultivated in Asia, both mariculture and inland aquaculture are global. Moreover, aquaculture will have a major role to play in meeting future food supply and resource challenges and will need to produce a greater proportion of the required high quality protein, with improved sustainability. Further expansion of aquaculture will have significant consequences for the management of aquatic habitats and for the supply of fertiliser and feed resources. The prevalence of disease, specifically in the intensive production environment, will require the continued use of a wide range of pesticides. In the current climate, total replacement of pesticides through new technologies and improved husbandry is unlikely. This means that there must be an understanding of how best to apply those pesticides that are currently available, their wider environmental impact and the use of alternative, future pesticides. This must, however, be part of a fully integrated management system for both mariculture and inland aquaculture that facilitates the production of high quality food while minimising any detrimental impacts on the environment.