Smart Materials and Systems as Artificial Pancreas for Diabetes Treatment
Diabetes mellitus has become a global burden that effects millions of lives. Conventional treatments usually involve daily painful subcutaneous injections with inaccurate feedback. Smart materials and systems that can mimic the normal function of the pancreas offer an alternative administration for diabetic patients. In this chapter, we review the recent advances in making an artificial pancreas, focusing mainly on glucose-responsive synthetic materials and cell-based systems. Specifically, chemically closed-loop systems are summarized based on different glucose-responsive materials, including glucose oxidase (GOx), phenylboronic acid (PBA), glucose binding protein (GBP), and insulin modification. Then pancreatic cell-based therapy is introduced. The advantages of each system and potential challenges regarding clinical translations are also discussed.