Magnetic-Responsive Materials as Smart Scaffolds for Stem Cells
Stem cells possess unique self-renewal and differentiation properties that make them especially well-suited for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. According to recent studies concerning the therapeutic use of stem cells, one of the critical barriers is the regulation of lineage specific differentiation. There have been plenty of efforts to control the differentiation of the stem cells for their induction into their intended purpose. Recently, magneto-responsive materials have been used to direct stem cell differentiation, due to the strengths of the magnet-based approaches applied to stem cell research. Magnetic nanoparticles, widely used nano-sized magnetic particles, are easily controllable by a manipulated magnetic force and also their size is adequate for sensitive regulation at the cellular level. And through combination with the magnetic nanoparticles, the stem cells could be magnetized resulting in the possession of mobility by the artificial magnetic force. Therefore, by using magnetic-responsive materials and a manipulated magnetic field, it is not only stem cell differentiation efficiency but also tissue engineering adaptability, represented as transplantation efficacy, that are significantly enhanced.