Hybrid Solar Cells
The field of hybrid solar cells promises a combination of the economic and easy production of organic molecules, with the stability and performance of inorganic materials. One of the pioneering developments in this field was the creation of the dye-sensitized solar cell in 1991. A number of different organic and inorganic material combinations have since been researched. Device architecture has also been extensively explored, with many variations in how the organic and inorganic layers are arranged and deposited. Inorganic layers have attracted much attention. Likewise, research into electrolytes has shown great advances, with some of the latest research showing positive results with solid state electrolytes. The sensitizer or dye has also been an area of intense research. To date, many different organic dye families have been explored in an effort to improve efficiency. Methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite is one of the more recent dyes and showed an incredible increase in efficiency. This ushered in a new field of research based on perovskite-type sensitizers. There is currently a drive to produce more stable and higher performing perovskites. Variations in composition and stoichiometry have so far yielded a large number of improvements, but stability is still a major concern. Both of these hybrid cell technologies are very promising. However, this field is still immature, with much development still required to improve stability and processing.