Aging is accompanied by low-grade, chronic inflammatory states that contribute to metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and other age-related diseases. Emerging evidences strongly suggests that suppression of chronic inflammatory states can retard aging and age-related diseases. Among many molecular changes accompanying aging, decreased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) activity has been suggested as a major factor underlying age-related inflammation and metabolic diseases. The anti-inflammatory action of PPARs was established by in vitro and in vivo studies using several rodent models with PPAR agonists, verifying the importance of PPARs as major players in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. In addition, recent works provided direct evidence of beneficial effects of PPAR agonists on aged rodents. Interestingly, activation of PPAR shows physiological changes similar to those observed under calorie restriction (CR), which is the most effective intervention known to delay aging and increase life span. Since drugs targeting PPARs have several adverse effects due to their off-target activity, the search for novel PPAR agonists with higher selectivity is currently under active investigation. This chapter highlights recent advances and current understanding of PPAR impacts on aging and describes the possibility of developing new therapeutic agents that modulate PPARs to control aging and age-related diseases.