Efforts to enhance healthspan through pharmacological agents and supplements targeting aging-associated pathological changes are now in the spotlight of geroscience. The attempts to increase healthspan are currently focused on slowing the basic biological processes accompanying aging, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, age-related decline of stress resistance, dysregulated cellular energy sensing and growth pathways, impaired proteostasis, deteriorated stem cell function/bioavailability, as well as oxidative and inflammation stress. A number of pharmacological agents targeting basic aging pathways to extend lifespan and healthspan (i.e., antioxidants, calorie restriction mimetics, autophagy inductors, etc.) are presently under investigation. Uncontrolled supplementation with substances having anti-aging properties can, however, be useless or even harmful. In modern pharmacy, anti-aging is likely one of the most promising markets because the target group can potentially include each individual. Present marketing investigation demonstrates that most people are willing to pay for long-term pharmacological therapy to prevent or delay the aging-related decline in physical and mental functions. Optimistic predictions of the feasibility of health- and life-extending interventions, however, should be critically discussed in the light of their ethical, social and economic implications. Only after in-depth examination and following comprehensive debates will the implementation of such approaches in clinical practice be possible.