Halloysite–Dopamine Hybrid Nanotubes to Immobilize Biomacromolecules
Biomacromolecules, such as protein, DNA, and polysaccharide, have been widely employed for bio-catalyzed synthesis/decomposition, anti-cancer therapy, bio-sensors, biofuel cells, and so on. Immobilizing biomacromolecules onto solid supports is often necessary to improve the operational stability, dispersity and recyclability. Halloysite nanotube has been identified as a promising support for biomacromolecule immobilization, while it requires a facile and mild method to firmly attach biomacromolecules onto halloysites. In this chapter, the development and employment of halloysite−dopamine hybrid nanotubes for biomacromolecule immobilization are presented. Firstly, the state-of-the-art of halloysite nanotubes-based biomacromolecule immobilization is briefly reviewed, especially the existing problems. The second part mentions a versatile technique platform called “dopamine chemistry”, which is inspired by the marine mussel’s adhesion protein. Next, some examples in which the technique platform was employed to solve the problems of pristine halloysite nanotubes are encompassed, including the potential applications of halloysite−dopamine hybrid nanotubes for immobilizing other biomacromolecules. Finally, a summary of this chapter as well as the future perspectives regarding halloysite−dopamine hybrid nanotubes are included.