Isothermal DNA Amplification Strategies for Food Biosensors
Rapid, sensitive, and selective pathogen detection in food industry is of paramount importance for global health. Currently available diagnostic assays based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which are time-consuming, complex, and relatively expensive, are ill suited to meet the current requirements for pathogen detection in the food industry. Different isothermal amplification techniques are faster, more sensitive, and more robust compared to other standard pathogen detection methods. Modern techniques are based on molecular diagnostics integrated with various detection modalities such as bioanalytical, electrochemical, and luminescence techniques to ensure more sensitive and specific detection processes. Here, we review conventional and non-conventional techniques for pathogen detection on food industry. We focus mainly on nucleic acid detection integrated with electrochemical biosensors. In addition, the applications of nanoparticle biosensors and colorimetric sensors are reviewed. Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices based on design strategies utilizing isothermal amplification for pathogen detection are also discussed.