Graphene-Based Biosensors for Food Analysis
Recent advances in bionanotechnology and its integration in a variety of areas including biosensors have resulted in the development of novel sensing platforms with highly improved performance. There has been great interest recently in the integration of nanomaterials and biomolecules for the development of biosensor devices. Among these nanomaterials, graphene shows unique electronic, mechanical and thermal properties. The potential harmful effect of food contaminants on human health and the subsequent need to detect them have led to significant interest in the development of graphene-based biosensors for this purpose. In this chapter, we discuss advances in the field of graphene-based biosensors for food safety. First, we briefly discuss the different preparation methods and properties of graphene and graphene-related materials (graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide). Graphene functionalization using covalent and non-covalent approaches, an important step for biosensor fabrication, is also described. Then recent developments in the use of graphene in biosensors for allergens, small molecules, and pathogens in foodstuff are discussed. Finally, future perspectives on the biosensing applications of graphene in food safety are briefly described.