Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Currently there are no effective curative or disease-modifying treatments available. The vast majority of cases are not directly attributable to inherited factors, suggesting that environmental factors play a crucial role in modulating predisposition to the disease. Dietary factors are the most frequently encountered environmental factors throughout life. Various natural components of the diet, including fatty acids and trace minerals, have been shown to modulate PD risk. Further, byproducts generated during high-temperature cooking in meat preparation (e.g. heterocyclic amines) are the focus of emerging neurodegenerative disease research. While some specific dietary factors could increase PD risk, several others have been identified as potential neuroprotective agents. Polyphenols and several vitamins in the human diet are potent antioxidants. In addition to antioxidant potency, dietary factors are often found to regulate neuroinflammation, metal toxicity, and many signalling pathways, including cell survival and apoptosis. In this chapter, we examine the potential role of heterocyclic amines in dopaminergic dysfunction. Next, dietary polyphenolic compounds and five major vitamins are evaluated as potential neuroprotective agents. We assess the mechanism of action for each dietary antioxidant by focusing on cell culture and animal models of PD, and epidemiological studies. Although further research on these compounds is necessary to determine their clinical relevance, such dietary factors offer a great potential for decreasing PD risk.