Analytical Challenges Posed by Norm Contaminated Sites
This paper describes some of the challenges faced by testing laboratories when conducting compliance measurements for NORM wastes. Focus is placed on solid materials as these comprise by far the most common samples of this type sent for commercial analysis. The importance of understanding the industrial processes giving rise to the waste and the need for representative sampling are emphasised. The market for analysis of NORM will undoubtedly grow, driven by more rigorous, modern legislation; however, existing capacity is limited. Future needs are discussed with reference to hydraulic fracturing for shale gas, already a mature technology in North America and one that is set to play an increasing role in the UK and continental Europe.