Sample Preparation and Extraction Techniques Using Nanomaterials
This chapter expresses the basic and advanced concepts of sample pretreatment and extraction procedures with nanomaterials prior to analytical qualification and quantitative analysis. The subject is surveyed in four sections according to the relevant and exigent elements of preconcentration processes. The first section imparts the cardinal aspects prior to the environmental analysis. The inefficiency of the traditional strategies and theoretical roots in the liquid-based methodologies enhance the urgency of study and the use of solid-phase extraction methods and novel sorptive materials. The second section discusses the nanometric scale, the main mechanisms for adsorption phenomenon by nanomaterials and furthermore the multifarious properties of materials on this scale. The third section pertains to the sample pretreatment and extraction procedures that have been examined by using nanomaterials as potential adsorbents to date. The fundamental characteristics, methodologies and theoretical evaluations of these methods are studied hereof. Finally, the fourth section presents a comprehensive view of the nanoadsorbents that have been utilized by different research groups around the world for the preconcentration and extraction of assorted environmental species.