Environmental Applications of Iron-Containing Nanomaterials: Synthetic Routes, Structures, Compositions and Properties
Remediation of contaminated groundwater and surface water is the main purpose of environmental sciences. This problem affects the health of millions of people, where the major pollutants of water are agriculture and industrial production. However, the treatment of water is very expensive. Accordingly, in the last few decades the use of zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles for the treatment of toxic contaminants in water has seen a tremendous increase. The main advantages of nanoiron among other nanomaterials are relatively low toxicity and biodegradability. In addition, iron is a relatively cheap and widespread material. This chapter gives an overview of the recent advances of ZVI nanoparticles for environmental application; particular attention is paid to syntheses, structures and properties of nano zero-valent iron (NZVI), and polymorphic forms of iron oxides and FeOOH. In addition, focus is placed on the processes of remediation of organic contaminants, ionic metals and anions. The disinfection of water, toxicity and risks of iron nanomaterials application are reported.