Prevention of Deleterious Biofluid–Surface Interactions in Detection and Medical Devices: A Look into the Future
The text considers the numerous aspects of the physical chemistry of the interactions of a variety of biological moieties with many types of solid substrates. Obviously, the two key consequences of this type of interactions are the potentially negative results in terms of true hemostasis and, just as important, the biological species that may result in damage to, for example, implanted devices such as biosensors. Most research in the generalized field of biocompatibility has focused on modifying the surface of substrates in order to avoid or prevent the initial adsorption of species (cell and proteins). In this chapter, views on the critical role played by hydration water molecules in connection to such modifications are summarized and evaluated. This leads to a discussion on ultra-thin water films on surfaces and how they compare to “macroscopic” coatings. Finally, the chapter outlines the potential of antifouling chemistry in terms of applications in tissue engineering and biosensor technology. With regard to the latter area, such chemistry must be capable of tandem molecular recognition and prevention of non-specific adsorption.