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Chapter 3

Interaction of Cells and Tissue with Substrate Surfaces

This chapter begins with a concise look at the eukaryotic cell with an emphasis on the nature of the extracellular matrix (ECM), designed for the non-biology reader. This is followed by a relevant description of cells that are important in terms of surface interaction, especially those present in blood, or that are often incorporated in studies of substrate effects on their properties. The chapter then proceeds to the central theme of this chapter, that is, the role of surfaces in the adhesion, proliferation, growth, and guidance of cells on substrates of various kinds. By far the majority of the research in this area has been on the role of coatings on the substrate under investigation, with a particular emphasis on polypeptides and the proteins of the extracellular matrix that incorporate the well-known RGD amino acid sequence. The covalent binding of ECM-based peptides has been extended to research involving the orchestrated surface spatial distribution of peptides, since it has been demonstrated that cellular adhesion is significantly dependent on such spatiality. This is conventionally achieved through photolithographic methods on substrates such as silicon. The role played by the surface morphology of substrates has been studied extensively with much work being performed on endothelial, smooth muscle and fibroblast cells among many. A wide variety of methods have been employed, such as etching and lithography, to produce different morphologies, which have ranged from unordered structures to more spatially-orchestrated systems. Surface morphology does influence the cellular response, such as spreading, proliferation, adhesion, elongation, and migration, but there appears to be no consistent trend with respect to a specific response. The chapter concludes with a short discussion of the interaction that occurs between cells or tissue and nanoparticles (NPs). This topic is crucial in the field of theranostics, which deals with combined clinical diagnostics and therapy. The involved NPs range from those composed of semiconductor materials and metals such as gold, to those fabricated from polymeric species and biological entities. The wide scale use of NPs for drug delivery and tandem imaging with various technologies is outlined. The discussion ends with the caveat that introduction of NPs into the body has been shown to produce tissue damage, and the spawning of the relatively new field of nanotoxicology.

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12 Sep 2016
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From the book series:
Detection Science