Development of Fluorescent Probes for the Detection of Peroxynitrite
Among the various methods for peroxynitrite detection in biological media, fluorescent probes remain one of the most efficient approaches, owing to their sensitivity and specificity for peroxynitrite in live cells. By harnessing the unique oxidation and nitrosation reactions that peroxynitrite undergoes, a growing number of reaction-based fluorescent probes for peroxynitrite have been developed by combining common fluorescent dyes with peroxynitrite-responsive chemical groups. When coupled with modern spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, fluorescent probes have provided the unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution needed for peroxynitrite detection. In this chapter, we will first discuss the chemical properties of peroxynitrite, followed by a survey of the design, characterization, and performance of common fluorescent probes for peroxynitrite detection. We will conclude with perspectives on the future of peroxynitrite probe development by addressing the current challenges regarding its detection and imaging.