Discovery of Biomarkers of Diabetes Type 1 and Type 2
Biomarkers are essential decision-making tools in medicine as indicators of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic response to a therapeutic intervention. Advanced technologies give opportunities to researchers to examine thousands of molecules together from transcriptional processes to metabolic pathways, and understand the interrelations between cells, tissues and organs in both healthy and diseased states. Biomarkers have been extensively researched for diseases such as diabetes mellitus, which is a highly heterogeneous, chronic disorder and responsible for damage, dysfunction and failure of different organs both before and after its diagnosis. In this chapter, biomarkers of type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes mellitus that are mostly retrieved from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, proteoglycomics, and metabolomics studies are discussed and listed in the context of their types, and relations to physiological and pathological processes. It covers clinical biomarkers used as diagnostic tests and in validation of drugs and recommended by diabetes management practice guidelines, and also novel biomarkers associated with the transcriptional (gene biomarkers), post-transcriptional (microRNA biomarkers), post-translational (proteins), and metabolic (molecules other than DNA and RNA) regulations in the patients with diabetes mellitus and related complications.