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Chapter 9

Gene–Environment Interaction and Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Over recent years our understanding of vascular biology has increased but the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors on the process atherosclerosis make CVD prediction difficult. This chapter will focus on the concept of gene–environment interaction in relation to plasma markers of oxidative stress and CVD risk. Increased oxidative stress and associated inflammation are important contributors to atherosclerosis and CVD. Genetic variation in antioxidant genes may determine the homeostatic response in an environment of increased oxidative burden (e.g. smoking). To date, the influence of genetic variation on biomarkers of oxidative stress has been limited due to the lack of a robust measurement in a large number of samples often required in gene-association studies. This also explains the inability to look at gene–environment interaction within the limited number of studies. The chapter will examine in detail the association between plasma markers of oxidative stress and LDL-oxidation with variants from three specific candidate genes: apolipoprotein E (a plasma lipoprotein), mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (a mitochondrial antioxidant) and glutathione-s-transferase (a cellular antioxidant protein).

Print publication date: 22 May 2015
Copyright year: 2015
Print ISBN: 978-1-78262-046-4
PDF eISBN: 978-1-78262-239-0
ePub eISBN: 978-1-78262-524-7
From the book series:
Drug Discovery