The Relevance of Biomarkers, Risk Factors and Gene–Environment Interactions in Disease: Scientific Developments and Therapeutic Approaches
Increases in obesity and diabetes together with aging of the population are likely to be accompanied by a rise in cardiovascular disease. These conditions are interlinked and are associated with immediate and long-term health effects. Both genetic and environmental factors are important in the development of these conditions. There is an urgent need to identify as early as possible those children and adults at risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disease, and to develop new improved treatments for these conditions and their associated complications. New and more reliable diagnostic markers of disease are needed, as well as new therapeutic strategies that target specific molecules in disease pathways. Translation of experimental animal studies to clinical practice will be key to developing more effective therapies with greater patient compliance and fewer adverse effects.