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Chapter 3

Thermal Fluctuations in Non-equilibrium Steady States

This chapter deals with thermal fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures in non-equilibrium steady states without any macroscopic fluid motion. Thermal fluctuations in fluids in the presence of a temperature and/or concentration gradient exhibit a pronounced non-equilibrium enhancement and are long ranged extending over the entire system. As a consequence, non-equilibrium fluctuations are profoundly affected by gravity and by finite-size effects. In addition, they induce large non-equilibrium Casimir forces. These phenomena change the traditional picture of thermal fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures.

Print publication date: 16 Oct 2015
Copyright year: 2016
Print ISBN: 978-1-78262-024-2
PDF eISBN: 978-1-78262-254-3
ePub eISBN: 978-1-78262-736-4