Thermal Fluctuations in Non-equilibrium Steady States
This chapter deals with thermal fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures in non-equilibrium steady states without any macroscopic fluid motion. Thermal fluctuations in fluids in the presence of a temperature and/or concentration gradient exhibit a pronounced non-equilibrium enhancement and are long ranged extending over the entire system. As a consequence, non-equilibrium fluctuations are profoundly affected by gravity and by finite-size effects. In addition, they induce large non-equilibrium Casimir forces. These phenomena change the traditional picture of thermal fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures.