Supra-Amphiphiles Based on Charge Transfer Interactions
This chapter collates examples of supra-amphiphiles constructed from donor (D)–acceptor (A) building blocks primarily through charge transfer interactions. Depending on the structure of the building blocks, they exhibit wide-ranging nanostructures—including micelles, vesicles and fibrillar networks—which often differ from the morphology of the self-assembled structure observed for the constituent D or A amphiphile. Some of the examples indicate the possibility of the redox-responsive disassembly of the aggregates of the D–A supra-amphiphiles depending on the redox conditions; the D and/or A may become oxidized or reduced and no longer inherit their D or A nature. Some of the examples show that the D–A supra-amphiphile design can be extended to the macromolecular domain. Examples of D–A supra-amphiphile-like structures in hydrocarbons are discussed, highlighting their similarity with the so-called aqueous supra-amphiphilic systems in the context of structure formation.