In this chapter, we review the recent advances in the use of ILs in the process of forming polymeric gels (ionogels) and hydrogels. The tunability and versatility of ILs aligned with the features of natural (e.g. chitin or cellulose) and/or synthetic polymers have opened up new ways to process them not only as hydrogels, but also as matrices in different shapes and sizes. In particular, polymeric hydrogels processed in ILs can be useful for a broad range of applications from the removal of anionic dyes to biomaterials. We also highlight the physico-chemical properties and characteristics of the natural and synthetic polymers most used in the preparation of polymeric ionogels and hydrogels in ILs.