Large amounts of coffee by-products are generated in the industrial processing of coffee cherries to obtain the coffee beverage. Approximately 90% of the cherry is discarded during the conversion of the cherry into a tasty, aromatic brew. Coffee waste causes environmental problems worldwide and represents a loss of natural sources of several added value compounds. The present chapter provides a review of the information currently available on coffee by-products including their definition, chemical composition and potential applications. The feasibility of applying the biorefinery concept to achieve a sustainable coffee sector is discussed. Based on the research conducted in this field, we can conclude that coffee is not only for drinking; you can also use it for many beneficial purposes by applying the biorefinery concept. Conversion of by-products into health-promoting products is of particular interest. However, raw materials should be controlled for quality and safety before they are converted into products for human consumption. The safety rules used to test the quality of green beans should also be adopted for other coffee materials. Thus, coffee by-products have a future as co-products and provide an opportunity to increase the competitiveness of the coffee sector.