Oleuropein down-regulated IL-1β-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human synovial fibroblast cell line SW982
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease mainly characterized by aggressive hyperproliferation of synovial fibroblasts (SFs). It is accompained by a massive infiltration of inflammatory immune cells inducing progressive matrix degradation, destruction of cartilage and bone erosion through the production of inflammatory mediators. Oleuropein is the most prevalent phenolic component in olive leaves, seed, pulp and peel of unripe olives and is responsible for the characteristic bitter taste of unprocessed olives. This secoiridoid possesses well-documented pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and is available as a food supplement in Mediterranean countries. However, to date, anti-arthritic effects of oleuropein on SFs have not been yet elucidated. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of oleuropein, on IL-1β-induced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in the human synovial sarcoma cell line (SW982). In order to gain a better insight into mechanisms of action, signaling pathways were also explored. Cell viability was determined using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-1 and MMP-3 was evaluated by ELISA. Moreover, changes in the protein expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signalling pathways were analysed by western blot. Oleuropein exerted anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects via down-regulation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and induction of Nrf2-linked HO-1 controlling the production of inflammatory mediators decreasing IL-6 and TNF-α cytokines, MMP-1 and MMP-3 levels and mPGES-1 and COX-2 overexpression. Thus, oleuropein might provide a basis for developing a new dietary strategy for the prevention and management of RA.