Unavoidable food supply chain waste: acid-free pectin extraction from mango peel via subcritical water†
Mango peel is the major by-product of mango processing, and compromises 7–24% of the total mango weight. In this study, pectin was extracted from mango peel waste by using subcritical water extraction (SWE) in the absence of mineral acid. A highest yield of 18.34% was achieved from the Kesar variety and the pectin was characterised using ATR-IR spectroscopy, TGA and 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy to confirm the structure. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was analysed with both titrimetry and 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and a high DE (>70%) was observed for all three varieties (Keitt, Sindhri and Kesar). This is the first report on acid-free subcritical water extraction of pectin from mango peel, which provides a green route for the valorisation of mango peel waste and contributes to a source of biobased materials and chemicals for a sustainable 21st century.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Bio-resources: feeding a sustainable chemical industry