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Volume 172, 2014
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Redox-active electrolyte for supercapacitor application

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This paper reports the electrochemical behaviour of supercapacitor carbon electrodes operating in different aqueous solutions modified by various redox-active species (hydroxybenzenes, bromine derivatives and iodide). Three dihydroxybenzenes with varying stereochemistry, i.e., –OH substitution, have been considered as electrolyte additives (0.38 mol L−1) in acidic, alkaline and neutral solutions. High capacitance values have been obtained, especially for the acidic and alkaline solutions containing 1,4-dihydroxybenzene (hydroquinone). Bromine derivatives of dihydroxybenzenes were also considered as the additive in alkaline solution for use as a supercapacitor electrolyte, and a significant increase in capacitance value was observed. The redox couple investigated next was an iodide/iodine system, where 2 mol L−1 NaI aqueous electrolyte was utilized. In this case, the most promising faradaic contribution during capacitor operation was achieved. In particular, stable capacitance values from 300–400 F g−1 have been confirmed by long-term galvanostatic cycling (over 100 000 cycles), cycling voltammetry and floating. The mechanism of pseudocapacitance phenomena was discussed and supported by electrochemical and physicochemical measurements, e.g., in situ Raman spectroscopy.

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The article was received on 25 Mar 2014, accepted on 06 May 2014 and first published on 06 May 2014

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00052H
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Faraday Discuss., 2014,172, 179-198

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    Redox-active electrolyte for supercapacitor application

    E. Frackowiak, M. Meller, J. Menzel, D. Gastol and K. Fic, Faraday Discuss., 2014, 172, 179
    DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00052H

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