Retracted Article: Origin of colossal permittivity in (In1/2Nb1/2)TiO2via broadband dielectric spectroscopy
(In1/2Nb1/2)TiO2 (IN-T) ceramics were prepared via a solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used for the structural and compositional characterization of the synthesized compounds. The results indicated that the sintered ceramics have a single phase of rutile TiO2. Dielectric spectroscopy (frequency range from 20 Hz to 1 MHz and temperature range from 10 K to 270 K) was performed on these ceramics. The IN-T ceramics showed extremely high permittivities of up to ∼103, which can be referred to as colossal permittivity, with relatively low dielectric losses of ∼0.05. Most importantly, detailed impedance data analyses of IN-T demonstrated that electron-pinned defect-dipoles, interfacial polarization and polaron hopping polarization contribute to the colossal permittivity at high temperatures (270 K); however, only the complexes (pinned electron) and polaron hopping polarization are active at low temperatures (below 180 K), which is consistent with UDR analysis.