Comparison of bovine serum albumin and chitosan effects on calcium phosphate formation in the presence of silver nanoparticles†
The precipitation of calcium phosphates (CaPs) in the presence of more than one type of additive is of interest both from a fundamental point of view and as a possible biomimetic route for the preparation of multicomponent composites in which the activity of the components is preserved. In this study, the effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and chitosan (Chi) on the precipitation of CaPs in the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT-AgNPs), poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP-AgNPs), and citrate (cit-AgNPs) was investigated. In the control system, the precipitation of CaPs occurred in two steps. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was the first precipitated solid, which transformed into a mixture of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CaDHA) and a smaller amount of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) after 60 min of ageing. Both biomacromolecules inhibited ACP transformation, with Chi being a stronger inhibitor due to its flexible molecular structure. As the concentration of the biomacromolecules increased, the amount of OCP decreased both in the absence and presence of AgNPs. In the presence of cit-AgNPs and two highest BSA concentrations, a change in the composition of the crystalline phase was observed. Calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate was formed in the mixture with CaDHA. An effect on the morphology of both the amorphous and crystalline phases was observed. The effect depended on the specific combination of biomacromolecules and differently stabilized AgNP. The results obtained suggest a simple method for fine-tuning the properties of precipitates using different classes of additives. This could be of interest for the biomimetic preparation of multifunctional composites for bone tissue engineering.