Protein redox by a piezoelectric acousto-nanodevice†
Protein redox is responsible for many crucial biological processes; thus, the ability to modulate the redox proteins through external stimuli presents a unique opportunity to tune the system. In this work, we present an acousto-nanodevice that is capable of oxidizing redox protein under ultrasonic irradiation via surface-engineered barium titanate (BTO) nanoparticles with a gold half-coating. Using cytochrome c as the model protein, we demonstrate nanodevice-mediated protein oxidation. BINased on our experimental observations, we reveal that the electron transfer occurs in one direction due to the alternating electrical polarization of BTO under ultrasound. Such unique unidirectional electron transfer is enabled by modulating the work function of the gold surface with respect to the redox center. The new class of ultrasonically powered nano-sized protein redox agents could be a modulator for biological processes with high selectivity and deeper treatment sites.