Role of extracted phytochemicals from Rosa sterilis S. D. Shi in DSS-induced colitis mice: potential amelioration of UC†
Rosa sterilis S. D. Shi is a new variety of R. roxburghii Tratt and its fruits are rich in bioactive components, but its effects and mechanisms against intestinal inflammation are currently unknown. In this study, the main components of the ethanol extract of R. sterilis S. D. Shi fruits (RSE) were identified and its anti-inflammatory efficacy in DSS-induced mice was evaluated. A total of nine compounds were identified, including 1-O-E-cinnamoyl-(6-arabinosylglucose), ellagic acid-O-rhamnoside, (epi) catechin, niga-ichigoside F1, etc. The results demonstrated that RSE ameliorated DSS-induced inflammation in mouse colon tissues by increasing mucin expression, reducing the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibiting the mRNA expression of COX-2 and iNOS, regulating the composition of gut microbiota through suppressing Escherichia–Shigella while increasing Akkermansia muciniphila, and promoting the production of SCFAs, especially acetic acid. Briefly, RSE showed outstanding potential for anti-inflammatory activity and is expected to be a promising dietary supplement for healthy individuals to prevent or relieve colitis and colitis-related diseases, which provided a new direction for functional food development.