Issue 19, 2023

Green metrics in mechanochemistry


The development of new green methodologies and their broader adoption for promoting sustainable development in chemistry laboratories and industry play a significant role in society, due to the economic importance of chemistry and its widespread presence in everyday life. Therefore, a sustainable approach to chemistry contributes to the well-being of the worldwide population and complies with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) and the European Green Deal. The review highlights how batch and continuous mechanochemical methods are an eco-friendly approach for organic synthesis, with a lower environmental footprint in most cases, compared to solution-based procedures. The assessment is objectively based on the use of green metrics (e.g., atom and real atom economy, E-factor, process mass intensity, material parameter recovery, Eco-scale, stoichiometric factor, etc.) and indicators (e.g. DOZN tool and life cycle assessment, LCA, studies) applied to organic transformations such as synthesis of the amide bond, carbamates, heterocycles, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), porphyrins, porous organic polymers (POPs), metal- or acid-catalysed processes, multicomponent and condensation reactions, rearrangements, etc. The generalized absence of bulk solvents, the precise control over the stoichiometry (i.e., using agents in a stoichiometrically rather than in excess), and the more selective reactions enabling simplified work-up procedures are the distinctive factors, marking the superiority of mechanochemical processes over solution-based chemistry.

Graphical abstract: Green metrics in mechanochemistry

Article information

Article type
Review Article
07 Jan 2023
First published
11 Sep 2023
This article is Open Access
Creative Commons BY-NC license

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2023,52, 6680-6714

Green metrics in mechanochemistry

N. Fantozzi, J. Volle, A. Porcheddu, D. Virieux, F. García and E. Colacino, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2023, 52, 6680 DOI: 10.1039/D2CS00997H

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. You can use material from this article in other publications, without requesting further permission from the RSC, provided that the correct acknowledgement is given and it is not used for commercial purposes.

To request permission to reproduce material from this article in a commercial publication, please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

If you are an author contributing to an RSC publication, you do not need to request permission provided correct acknowledgement is given.

If you are the author of this article, you do not need to request permission to reproduce figures and diagrams provided correct acknowledgement is given. If you want to reproduce the whole article in a third-party commercial publication (excluding your thesis/dissertation for which permission is not required) please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

Read more about how to correctly acknowledge RSC content.

Social activity