Bioinformatics-guided discovery of biaryl-linked lasso peptides†
Lasso peptides are a class of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) that feature an isopeptide bond and a distinct lariat fold. A growing number of secondary modifications have been described that further decorate lasso peptide scaffolds. Using genome mining, we have discovered a pair of lasso peptide biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that include cytochrome P450 genes. Using mass spectrometry, stable isotope incorporation, and extensive 2D-NMR spectrometry, we report the structural characterization of two unique examples of (C–N) biaryl-linked lasso peptides. Nocapeptin A, from Nocardia terpenica, is tailored with a Trp–Tyr crosslink, while longipepetin A, from Longimycelium tulufanense, features a Trp–Trp linkage. Besides the unusual bicyclic frame, a Met of longipepetin A undergoes S-methylation to yield a trivalent sulfonium, a heretofore unprecedented RiPP modification. A bioinformatic survey revealed additional lasso peptide BGCs containing P450 enzymes which await future characterization. Lastly, nocapeptin A bioactivity was assessed against a panel of human and bacterial cell lines with modest growth-suppression activity detected towards Micrococcus luteus.