Nature-inspired functional porous materials for low-concentration biomarker detection†
Nanostructuration is a promising tool for enhancing the performance of sensors based on electrochemical transduction. Nanostructured materials allow for increasing the surface area of the electrode and improving the limit of detection (LOD). In this regard, inverse opals possess ideal features to be used as substrates for developing sensors, thanks to their homogeneous, interconnected pore structure and the possibility to functionalize their surface. However, overcoming the insulating nature of conventional silica inverse opals fabricated via sol–gel processes is a key challenge for their application as electrode materials. In this work, colloidal assembly, atomic layer deposition and selective surface functionalization are combined to design conductive inverse opals as an electrode material for novel glucose sensing platforms. An insulating inverse opal scaffold is coated with uniform layers of conducting aluminum zinc oxide and platinum, and subsequently functionalized with glucose oxidase embedded in a polypyrrole layer. The final device can sense glucose at concentrations in the nanomolar range and is not affected by the presence of common interferents gluconolactone and pyruvate. This method may also be applied to different conductive materials and enzymes to generate a new class of highly efficient biosensors.
- This article is part of the themed collection: #MyFirstMH