A nutrient-wide association study for the risk of cardiovascular disease in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)†
Evidence on the association between dietary nutrient-wide intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is inconclusive. Therefore, we systematically assessed the association between dietary intake of 29 nutrients and CVD risk using a nutrient-wide association study. Data were obtained from 7878 Chinese adults participating in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) wave 2004–2015. We estimated the association of 29 nutrients with CVD risk. Significant findings were replicated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Four nutrients (selenium, vitamin A, carotenoids, and total protein) were significantly associated with CVD risk in the CHNS. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for nutrient intake in the third tertile compared to the first tertile were 0.68 (0.51–0.90), 0.70 (0.54–0.91), 0.64 (0.50–0.83), and 0.54 (0.38–0.77), respectively. In the NHANES replication, selenium maintained a similar direction and strength of association, while the other nutrients were not replicated successfully. Our results provide support for a negative association between selenium intake and CVD risk, while the association of vitamin A, carotenoids and protein with CVD warrants further studies to confirm.