Recent advances in metal–organic frameworks and their composites for the phototherapy of skin wounds
Wound healing is a complex process that greatly affects the normal physiological activities of genes, proteins, signaling pathways, tissues, and organs. Bacterial infection could easily lead to serious tissue damage during wound healing, thus countering wound infections becomes a major challenge for clinicians and nursing professionals. At present, the exploration of highly effective, low toxicity and environment friendly methods for wound healing is attracting considerable interest all over the world. Recently, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have presented great potential for treating wound infections due to their unique characteristics of diversified functionality, large specific surface area, and high biocompatibility. These properties endow MOFs/MOF-based composites with an outstanding anti-wound infection effect, which is mainly attributed to the continuously released active components and the exerted catalytic activity with the assistance of phototherapy. In this review, the current progress of MOFs/MOF-based composites for the phototherapy of skin wounds is presented. Firstly, we illustrate the pathophysiological mechanisms, principles of phototherapy and the conventional methods for wound healing. Then, the structures and characteristics of MOFs are systematically summarized. Moreover, the review highlights the recent advances in the application of phototherapy for wound healing (including photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, and synergistic therapy) based on various MOFs/MOF-based composites. Finally, the challenges and perspectives are provided for the further development of MOF-based materials for medical application.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Journal of Materials Chemistry B Recent Review Articles