Modes of adhesion of two Janus nanoparticles on the outer or inner side of lipid vesicles†
Using molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model, in conjunction with the weighted histogram analysis method, the adhesion modes of two spherical Janus nanoparticles (NPs) on the outer or inner side of lipid vesicles are explored. In particular, the effects of the area fraction, J, of the NPs that interact attractively with lipid head groups, the adhesion strength and the size of the NPs on their adhesion modes are investigated. The NPs are found to exhibit two main modes of adhesion when adhered to the outer side of the vesicle. In the first mode, which occurs at relatively low values of J, the NPs are apart from each other. In the second mode, which occurs at higher values of J, the NPs form an in-plane dimer. Janus NPs, which adhere to the inner side of the vesicle, are always found to be apart from each other, regardless of the value of J and their diameter.