Oxygen-supplied mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for enhanced photothermal/photodynamic synergetic therapy against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections†
Pandemic and epidemic spread of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections would result in a huge number of fatalities globally. To combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens, new antimicrobial strategies should be explored and developed to confront bacteria without acquiring or increasing drug-resistance. Here, oxygen saturated perfluorohexane (PFH)-loaded mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (CIL@ICG/PFH@O2) with photothermal therapy (PTT) and enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) utility are developed for antibacterial applications. Ionic liquid groups are grafted onto the surface of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles, followed by anion-exchange with the anionic photosensitizer indocyanine green (ICG) and loading oxygen saturated PFH to prepare CIL@ICG/PFH@O2. These CIL@ICG/PFH@O2 nanoparticles exhibit effective PTT and enhanced PDT properties simultaneously upon 808 nm light irradiation. In vitro assays demonstrate that CIL@ICG/PFH@O2 shows a synergistic antibacterial action against antibiotic-resistant pathogens (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli). Moreover, CIL@ICG/PFH@O2 could effectively kill drug-resistant bacteria in vivo to relieve inflammation and eliminate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-wound infection under NIR irradiation, and the released oxygen can increase collagen deposition, epithelial tissue formation and blood vessel formation to promote wound healing while enhancing the PDT effect. This study proposes a platform with enhanced PTT/PDT effects for effective, controlled, and precise treatment of topical drug-resistant bacterial infections.