Metal-bio functionalized bismuthmagnetite [Fe3−xBixO4/SiO2@l-ArgEt3+I−/Zn(ii)]: a novel bionanocomposite for the synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-2,4-dioxobenzo[b][1,4]diazepine malononitriles and malonamides at room temperature and under sonication†
In this work, a new magnetized composite of bismuth (Fe3−xBixO4) was prepared and functionalized stepwise with silica, triethylargininium iodide ionic liquid, and Zn(II) to prepare a multi-layered core–shell bio-nanostructure, [Fe3−xBixO4/SiO2@L-ArgEt3+I−/Zn(II)]. The modified bismuth magnetic amino acid-containing nanocomposite was characterized using several techniques including Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetric (TGA/DSC) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The magnetized bionanocomposite exhibited high catalytic activity for the synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-2,4-dioxobenzo[b][1,4]diazepine malononitriles via five-component reactions between 1,2-phenylenediamines, Meldrum's acid, malononitrile, aldehydes, and isocyanides at room temperature in ethanol. The efficacy of this protocol was also examined to obtain malonamide derivatives via pseudo six-component reactions of 1,4-phenylenediamine, Meldrum's acid, malononitrile, aldehydes, and isocyanides. When the above-mentioned MCRs were repeated under the same conditions with the application of sonication, a notable decrease in the reaction time was observed. The recovery and reusability of the metal-bio functionalized bismuthmagnetite were examined successfully in 3 runs. Furthermore, the characteristics of the recovered Fe3−xBixO4/SiO2@L-ArgEt3+I−/Zn(II) were investigated though FESEM and EDAX analysis.