Dualplex lateral flow assay for simultaneous scopolamine and “cannibal drug” detection based on receptor-gated mesoporous nanoparticles†
We report herein the design of a strip-based rapid test utilizing bio-inspired hybrid nanomaterials for the in situ and at site detection of the drug scopolamine (SCP) using a smartphone for readout, allowing SCP identification in diluted saliva down to 40 nM in less than 15 min. For this purpose, we prepared a nanosensor based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with a fluorescent reporter (rhodamine B) and functionalized with bethanechol, a potent agonist of recombinant human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (M2-AChR). M2-AChR interaction with the anchored bethanechol derivative leads to capping of the pores. The sensing mechanism relies on binding of SCP to M2-AChR resulting in pore opening and delivery of the entrapped rhodamine B reporter. Moreover, the material was incorporated into strips for lateral-flow assays coupled to smartphone readout, giving fast response time, good selectivity, and exceptional sensitivity. In an attempt to a mobile analytical test system for law enforcement services, we have also developed a dualplex lateral flow assay for SCP and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) also known as the so-called “cannibal drug”.