Ultra-dense plasmonic nanogap arrays for reorientable molecular fluorescence enhancement and spectrum reshaping†
Understanding interactions between molecular transition and intense electromagnetic fields confined by plasmon nanostructures is of great significance due to their huge potential in fundamental cavity quantum electrodynamics and practical applications. Here, we report reorientable plasmon-enhanced fluorescence leveraging the flexibilities in densely-packed gold nanogap arrays by template-assisted depositions. By finely adjusting the symmetry of the unit structure, arrays of nanogaps along two nearly-orthogonal axes can be tailored collectively with spacing down to sub-10 nm on a single chip, facilitating distinct “inter-cell” and “intra-cell” plasmon couplings. Through engineering two sets of nanogaps, the varying hybridization-induced plasmonic bonding modes lead to adjustable splitting of the fluorescence emission peak with a width up to 81 nm and narrowing of linewidths up to a factor of 3. Besides, polarization anisotropy with a ratio up to 63% is obtained on the basis of spectrally separated local hotspots with discrepant oscillation directions. The developed plasmonic nanogap array is envisaged to provide a promising chip-scale, cost-effective platform for advancing fluorescence-based detection and emission technologies in both classical and quantum regimes.