On-demand quantum spin Hall insulators controlled by two-dimensional ferroelectricity†
We propose a new class of quantum materials, type-II two-dimensional ferroelectric topological insulators (2DFETIs), which allow non-volatility and an on–off switch of quantum spin Hall states. A general strategy is developed to realize type-II 2DFETIs using only topologically trivial 2D ferroelectrics. The built-in electric field arising from the out-of-plane polarization across the bilayer heterostrucuture of 2D ferroelectrics enables robust control of the band gap size and band inversion strength, which can be utilized to manipulate the topological phase transitions on-demand. Using first-principles calculations with hybrid density functionals, we demonstrate that a series of bilayer heterostructures are type-II 2DFETIs characterized with a direct coupling between the band topology and polarization state. We propose a few 2DFETI-based quantum electronics, including domain-wall quantum circuits and topological memristors.