Stretchable and transparent ionogel-based heaters†
Transparent heaters (THs) are widely used for various applications, such as in smart windows, deicers, defoggers, displays, and thermotherapy pads. The rapid development of flexible electronics has led to a demand for flexible and even stretchable THs. At present, most stretchable THs are designed using a combination of electronically conductive networks and flexible polymer materials. Electronic THs still face common challenges, such as a transparency-conductance trade-off, non-uniform heating, and poor interfacial adhesion. In this work, an ionic TH is reported based on a stretchable and transparent ionogel. Joule heating from an ionic current induced by alternating voltage functions as the heating source. This ionogel-based TH exhibits excellent and steady mechanical, optical, electrical, and thermal properties, simultaneously solving the abovementioned three problems relating to electronic THs. Two simple applications of this ionogel-based TH are demonstrated: deicing and boiling water. This reported ionogel-based TH provides a new material choice and heating principle to compete with conventional electronic TH technology.