In printable electrochromic polymer (ECP) displays, a wide color gamut, precise patterning, and controllable color switching are important. However, it is a significant challenge to achieve such features synergistically. Here, we present a solution-processable ECP stacking scheme, where a crosslinker is co-processed with three primary ECPs (ECP-Cyan, ECP-Magenta, and ECP-Yellow), which endows the primary ECPs with solvent-resistant properties and allows them to be sequentially deposited. Via varying the film thickness of each ECP layer, a full-color palette can be constructed. The ECP stacking strategy is further integrated with photolithography. Delicate multilayer patterns with overhang and undercut textures can be generated, allowing information displays with spatial dimensionality. In addition, via modulating the stacking sequence, the electrochemical onset potentials of the ECP components can be synchronized to reduce unwanted intermediate colors that are often found in co-processed ECPs. Should specific color properties be desired, COMSOL modeling could be applied to guide the stacking. We believe that this ECP stacking strategy opens a new avenue for electrochromic printing and displays.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Special issue in honour of Seth Marder