Mechanochemical synthesis of (4S)-N-alkyl-4,5-bis-sulfooxypentanamide via a one-pot sequential aminolysis-sulfation reaction of (S)-γ-hydroxymethyl-γ-butyrolactone (2H-HBO)†
To valorize further the highly valuable bio-based platform (S)-γ-hydroxymethyl-γ-butyrolactone (2H-HBO), whose sustainable kiloscale-synthesis from cellulose-derived levoglucosenone (LGO) has been validated, a mechanochemical strategy was developed to produce new potential bio-based surfactants under solventless conditions. First, the reaction of 2H-HBO with primary or secondary amines was investigated followed by a sulfation reaction with the isolated N-alkyl-amide derivatives to obtain the corresponding N-alkyl sulfated compounds. The latter was then obtained by an optimized one-pot sequential aminolysis–sulfation in a planetary ball mill with excellent efficiency. For the first time, sulfated compounds arising from bio-based/renewable resources were obtained exclusively via a mechanochemical process. As a result, the sulfated derivatives of 2H-HBO were formed quantitatively and isolated in 69–79% overall yields. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was determined for some of them which exhibited interesting anionic surfactant properties.